Chest | Pulmonology (Medicine Field)


Pulmonology is a branch of internal medicine that studies the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs, basically is the study of respiratory disease. Pulmonology is related to intensive care medicine and often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation.


A doctor who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist, a chest medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.

Symptoms and Diseases

Respiratory disease is a medical term that refers to pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues involved in breathing, such as: upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild such as the common cold, to life-threatening conditions like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer.

The different ways that Respiratory diseases can be classified are: by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease: Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma), Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections (Upper respiratory tract infection, Lower respiratory tract infection, Malignant and Benign tumors), Pleural cavity diseases and Pulmonary vascular diseases.

Diagnosis, Treatment and Benefits

The tests performed in Respiratory diseases investigations are the following: Chest x-ray, Pulmonary function test, Computed tomography scan, Culture of microorganisms from secretions such as sputum, Bronchoscopy, Biopsy of the lung or pleura, Ventilation - perfusion scan, Ultrasound scanning can be useful to detect fluid such as pleural effusion.

Medication is the most important treatment of most diseases of pulmonology, either by inhalation (bronchodilators and steroids) or in oral form (antibiotics, leukotriene antagonists). A common example being the usage of inhalers in the treatment of inflammatory lung conditions such as Asthma or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy is often necessary in severe respiratory disease (emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis). When this is insufficient, the patient might require mechanical ventilation. ...