Pelvis | Urology (Medicine Field)
Urology is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Urology is very important because it combines the management of medical problems such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as surgical problems such as the surgical management of cancers, the correction of congenital abnormalities, and correcting stress incontinence. Urology is closely related to the medical fields of oncology, nephrology, gynecology, andrology, pediatrics surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.
Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and they are physicians who are specialized in diseases of the urinary organs in females and the urinary and sex organs in males.
Symptoms and Diseases
The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs. Sometimes, infections can appear. A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection caused by pathogenic organisms (for example, bacteria or parasites) in any of the structures that comprise the urinary tract. Some authors prefer to use terms to localize the urinary tract infection such as urethritis (urethral infection), cystitis (bladder infection), ureter infection, and pyelonephritis (kidney infection). Other structures that eventually connect to or share close anatomic proximity to the urinary tract (for example, prostate, epididymis, and vagina) is sometimes included in the discussion of UTIs because they may either cause or be caused by UTIs.
Although some infections go unnoticed, UTIs can cause problems that range from dysuria to organ damage and even death. The kidneys are the active organs that produce about 1. 5 quarts of urine per day. They help keeping electrolytes and fluids (for example, potassium, sodium and water) in balance, assist in the removal of waste products (urea), and produce a hormone that helps in the formation of red blood cells. If kidneys are injured or destroyed by infection, these vital functions can be damaged or lost. ...