Ear Nose | Otorhinolaryngology (Medicine Field)


Otorhinolaryngology, also known as otolaryngology, is a medical and surgical specialty that diagnose and treat disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) and adjacent structures of the head and neck, including the sinuses, larynx, oral cavity, and upper pharynx which includes mouth and throat.


Practitioners are called otolaryngologists or head and neck surgeons. They are specialists trained in otolaryngology, experts in surgical conditions of the head and neck. Otolaryngologists use an otoscope to inspect the eardrum and a laryngoscope to exam the larynx. They also test hearing and prescribe hearing aids. The operating microscope and flexible endoscope now permit them to operate on delicate internal structures.

Subspecialty areas within otolaryngology include pediatrics otolaryngology, otology/neurotology, allergy, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, head and neck, laryngology, and rhinology. Some otolaryngologists limit their practices to one or more of these seven areas.

Symptoms and Diseases

The ears conditions are hearing loss, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), and some cranial nerve disorders.

In the nasal area problems that can occur are: allergies, smell disorders, polyps, and nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum. Otolaryngologists can also correct the appearance of the nose and this procedure is known as rhinoplasty surgery.

The throat is a vital area that involves communicating and eating. The throat problems that otolaryngologists manage are voice and swallowing disorders.

In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are treating infections, benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They also perform cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Diagnosis, Treatment and Benefits

The best ENT treatment will vary according to what type of problems or symptoms. In the early stages of a disorder, surgical procedures may not be warranted, as in tonsillitis, for example. Early treatments will also depend on whether or not the disorder is related to an infection. If an infection is suspected, tests may be performed to determine whether the cause is bacterial or viral. Viral infections will not respond to antibiotics. ...

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