Skin | Oncology | Skin cancer (Disease)
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that originates in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells become abnormal, grow uncontrollably and aggressively invade surrounding tissues. Although melanoma is less common than other types of skin cancer is the worst.
Causes and Risk factors
Skin cancer occurs when errors (mutations) occur in the DNA of skin cells. The mutations cause the cells to grow out of control and form a mass of cancer cells. he most common causes of melanoma are: exposure to ultraviolet (UV) between 10-15 hours and exposure to high altitudes; DNA damage in melanocytes following exposure to sunlight and UV radiation with short wavelength is the most important factor that causes melanoma; The solar body is exposed to UV also increase the risk of developing melanoma; depletion of the ozone layer can significantly affect the incidence of melanoma.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Fortunately, melanoma can be cured if detected and treated in early stages when it is located only in the skin. In advanced stages, it can spread or metastasize through blood and lymphatic (the lymph) to other organs or bones, in these cases are less likely to heal. T
It is estimated that there is a 1% increase in the incidence of melanoma with each percent thinning of the ozone layer; In families of melanoma (more cases of melanoma in the same family);Atypical moles;Weakened immune system, especially in people with organ transplants, leukemia. The most important warning sign for melanoma is change the size, shape or color of moles or other skin growths, such as birthmarks. To monitor changes that occur after a period of one month to 1-2 years.
To use the ABCD rules skin to evaluate skin changes and consult the family doctor if any of the following changes occur: A is for asymmetry. Half a mole or skin tumor does not overlap with the other half;B is for irregular borders . The edges are ragged, notched or spotted; C is for color. Pigmentation is not uniform. Shades of tan, brown and black are present. Dashes red, white and blue are added to the appearance of black spots. Change the cast color, especially color spread from the skin around the edge of the mole, is also an early sign of melanoma;D is for diameter. ...