Skull fracture (broken bone)


Head | Orthopaedics | Skull fracture (broken bone) (Disease)


Description

Cranial vault fractures can occur after both open trauma, penetrating or non-penetrating, and in closed trauma. Fractures occur following application of high energy which bones deform beyond its elastic limit. Fractures occur only if the elastic tolerance of the bone is exceeded.

Symptoms that develop depend on lesion location. The rule may show symptoms of deficiency or cerebral excitation, motor disturbances, sensitivity problems, seizures, aphasia. Skull base fractures often accompany bleeding in soft tissues of the head which means bruising and eyelid edema (raccoon sign), hematoma, bruising in mastoid region (Battle sign) signs (blood located in the middle ear). Cranial nerve damage may occur to dodge bone compression or compression caused by a hematoma.

The most commonly affected nerve is the optic nerve, followed by the olfactory nerve and vestibular nerve. Facial nerves can be affected, oculomotor and abducens common. Rocky bone fractures usually lead, facial nerve paralysis and dislocation of ear ossicles. Sphenoid bone fractures harm or divide across the optic nerve, resulting in partial or complete unilateral blindness. Pupillary reflex of the affected eye is abolished. Late facial paralysis is usually a better prognosis than paralysis that occur immediately. Stones can cause bone chops and VIII cranial nerve injury, resulting in hearing loss, vertigo and nystagmus immediately after the trauma.

Causes and Risk factors

Skull fractures can result in subdural or epidural hematoma formation, production of cranial nerve damage. Also, after injuries, creates gateways for bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in meningitis. The cephalic air can occur through air into the subarachnoid space. Skull fractures oriented on the production mechanism and the intensity of trauma.

Cranial vault fractures typically occur in the frontal and parietal region and rarely in temporal and occipital regions. If uncomplicated, are devoid of any neurological symptoms. If there are complications as hemorrhage or cerebral contusion, then the appropriate form of disease symptoms develop. Comminuted fracture of the skull vault and segments that accompany the bone can cause clogging or dilacerations because of the compression.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The physical examination will show that the hip does not have full and normal range of motion. There is often a loss of complete hip flexion and ability to fully rotate the hip inward. Because of inflammation in the hip, there is often pain at the extremes of motion and involuntary muscle guarding and spasm.

The goal of treatment, which requires surgery, is to prevent any additional slipping of the femoral head until the growth plate closes. If the head is allowed to slip farther, hip motion could be limited. Premature osteoarthritis could develop. Treatment should be immediate. In most cases, treatmen...