Splenic infarction (death of the spleen)

Abdomen | Gastroenterology | Splenic infarction (death of the spleen) (Disease)


The spleen is an organ highly perfused located in the upper left angle of the abdomen, between the diaphragm and ribs, and that, before birth, producing some blood cells and, after birth, plays an important role in immunity. The spleen is a mass of dark red, spongy, the size of a fist that weighs about 200 grams. The spleen is a lymphoid organ that plays an important role in immunity comparable to that of lymph nodes, participating in fighting infection by producing lymphocytes, antibodies and phagocytes. But, unlike the lymph nodes, it is in direct communication with the blood. Therefore it is in permanent contact with all circulating antigens, i. e. with all substances present in blood that are able to induce production of antibodies in the body, regardless of their origin (bacteria, toxins, foreign cells). She is involved, in fact, in triggering the immune response of blood serum from some infectious agents such as pneumococcus.

The symptoms are: asymptomatic (in mild cases); fever; chills; left upper quadrant pain; malaise; nausea; early satiety; vomiting; chest pain; left shoulder pain.

Causes and Risk factors

Zonal necrosis in the spleen is caused by acute ischemia. Most common causes are thrombosis and embolism artery lien. It occurs in rheumatism, septic endocarditis, myocardial infarction, enzootic. Myocardial ischaemia is a (white) form triunghlulara pointing to HIL and the capsule, which is developing a reactive fibrinous inflammation. Splenic infarction can rarely be of a hemorrhagic (red), if there is increased due to a venous stasis. Results in the organization and necrotic scarring. Very rarely see a ruptured spleen with internal bleeding, abscess, total necrosis. Splenic infarction refers to occlusion of the splenic vascular supply, leading to parenchymal ischemia and subsequent tissue necrosis. The infarct may be segmental, or it may be global, involving the entire organ. It is the result of arterial or venous compromise and is associated with a heterogeneous group of diseases.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Splenic infarction alone is not an indication for surgery. However, nonoperative management warrants close follow-up, and surgery is indicated for persistent symptoms or in the presence of complications such as hemorrhage, rupture, abscess, or persistent pseudocyst. ...