Typhoid fever (salmonella typhi infection)


Abdomen | Gastroenterology | Typhoid fever (salmonella typhi infection) (Disease)


Description

Typhoid is a serious infectious disease caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi. Typhoid can contact by ingesting bacteria present in water or food. Bacteria found in stool and urine of infected people.

Predominant symptom of disease is high fever (39-40 degrees) that is maintained throughout the disease . Other symptoms include: diarrhea; loss of appetite; fatigue; headache; body aches; lethargy; rash on the abdomen.

Causes and Risk factors

Thus, water can be contaminated by waste discharge of sewage, and food can become contaminated if touched by infected people who do not wash their hands after using the toilet. The bacteria can survive several weeks in water or dry waste. Some people were infected and not show disease symptoms, but these remain the carriers of the virus, making it possible sources for the infection . After it is ingested, the bacteria reach the small intestine into the bloodstream where it goes. Here is swallowed by phagocytes, immune system cells that pack and destroy harmful microorganisms. But Salmonella typhi survive inside phagocytes, where they multiply. After 10-14 days after infection, bacteria multiply and are leaking a lot of phagocytes in the blood, causing symptoms.

Bacteria pass blood in internal organs such as liver, gallbladder, spleen, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue of the intestine, causing their inflammation. To cause bowel disease intestinal bleeding or bowel perforation. The hole formed in the intestinal contents leaking bowel wall, the abdominal cavity. This leakage causes irritation and inflammation of the peritoneum, causing peritonitis, a condition that can be fatal.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis may be made based on clinical symptoms. For confirmation tests performed on samples obtained from blood cultures, stool, urine or bone marrow of the patient.

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics like chloramphenicol, ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Antibiotics most commonly used are ampicillin and amoxicilina. Most of the patients which are undergoing the therapy are recoverig without problems. There is a vaccine against typhoid fever but is not recommended unless people traveling to underdeveloped countries where they can be exposed to disease. ...