Urinalysis


Pelvis | General Practice | Urinalysis (Disease)


Description

Urinalysis is one of the most common tests, routine prescribed by general practitioners or specialists. Complete urinary sediment urinalysis and it is recommended that the testing be performed together.

Urinalysis is performed using strip with multiple areas (pads) impregnated with substances that enable them to identify around 10 to 11 parameters that occur commonly in normal and pathological urine. Urine substances interact chemically impregnated and produce a color reaction which is interpreted on a semi quantitative scale that visually, or by machines (semiautomatic or automatic urine analyzers). The result is given either in conventional units or semi quantitative or both.

If undertaking urinalysis it is well to note the following: Urine should be harvested after 4 hours of bladder stasis, a recent urine may be too diluted to identify any pathological features. Urine should be brought to the laboratory as soon as possible, otherwise it can be contaminated with the bacteria. Also, women urine is frequently contaminated with vaginal discharge or menstrual blood.

Sampling of which is determined the mostly examination from the urine are: Density (SG); pH; Erythrocytes, hemoglobin (ERY, BLD); Leukocytes (LEU); Glucose (GLU); Ketones (KET); Protein (PRO); Nitrite (NIT); Urobilinogen (UBG); Bilirubin (BIL); Ascorbic acid (ASC).

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has no pathological significance if found in urine, but it interferes with other measurements, where its high value (given by the intake of vitamin C tablets or different nutritional supplements) may get incorrect results from nitrite, bilirubin, and hemoglobin glycosuria.

The benchmarks are: Density (SG): 1000-1040 g/dl; pH: 5-6 (morning urine) from 4. 8 to 7. 4 (day urine); Erythrocytes (BLD): NEGATIVE; Leukocytes (LEU): Negative; Glucose (GLU): Normal; Ketones (KET): Negative; Proteins: Negative; Nitrites: Negative; Urobilinogen (UBG): Normal; Bilirubin (BIL): Negative. ...