Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia in Blood Cells


General or Other | Hematology | Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia in Blood Cells (Disease)


Description

Waldenstroms disease touches usually people over 60 years, with a slight predominance of males. The disease is unknown. The signs and symptoms are: excessive secretion of immunoglobulin M causes an increase in blood viscosity and plasma volume. These disorders have known of the nervous system and translate sounds in the ears, a decrease of visual acuity, the headaches, the disorders of consciousness which may, in serious cases, to coma.

Causes and Risk factors

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a disease linked to a proliferation of cells of lymphocytic origin (stem cells that give rise to normal lymphocytes, white blood cells involved in variety of immune reactions), which secrete excess special kind of antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM). In addition, hypervolemia (increased plasma volume) can lead to heart failure and excess immunoglobulin in the blood can cause bleeding disturbances related to blood clotting mechanisms. Moreover, deposits of immunoglobulin M in the kidney or peripheral nerves sometimes lead, respectively, renal failure and paralysis, especially the legs. An increase in size of spleen, liver or lymph nodes is seen in approximately one quarter of cases.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Excessive secretion of immunoglobulin M is emphasized and quantified, as a monoclonal bit, by electrophoresis (particles moving under the effect of an electric field) of blood plasma proteins, it reveals a serum immunoglobulin M levels greater than 5 grams per liter of serum. Lymphoid proliferation is detected by bone marrow puncture, in some cases, excess lymphoid cells is observed in blood.

The treatment aims braking lymphoid proliferation responsible for excessive secretion of immunoglobulin M. It consists, in general, in an oral chemotherapy, sometimes involving several substances (multiple-). In most severe cases, a plasmapheresis (plasma sample patient, who is reintroduced in the bloodstream after separating antibody excess) allows you to quickly reduce blood levels of antibodies. The forms in which increasing levels of immunoglobulin M is the only sign of disease, regular monitoring is required the patient to detect as early as possible an eventual evolution to Waldenstroms disease declared. ...