Skin | Dermatology | Wrinkles (Disease)
A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin. Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation, loss of body mass, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water. Age wrinkling in the skin is promoted by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors.
Causes and Risk factors
With age, skin cells divide more slowly, and the inner layer called the dermis, begins to thin. The network of elastin (the protein that gives the degree of stretching of the skin) and collagen fibers (the main protein of the skin supporting superficial layers) break or become weaker (sliding over one another), causing wrinkles.
With age, skin loses its elasticity, is less able to retain moisture, sebaceous secretion decreases and the skin is slower to heal. The wrinkles between the eyebrows (frown lines) and lines jutting from the corner of eyes (crows feet) are formed due to muscle contractions. Laugh, frown and other habitual facial expressions cause wrinkles.
Exposure to the ultraviolet rays can cause premature aging of skin. Premature aging of skin is called photoaging. Ultraviolet rays causing photoaging damage collagen fibers and cause the abnormal modified elastin excess. When ultraviolet light damages skin tissue, it produces an enzyme called metalloproteinase. This enzyme creates and reforms collagen. During this process, some healthy collagen fibers are damaged, resulting in a disorganized formation of fibers called solar scars. Wrinkles form when the reconstruction occurs.
Researchers have found that smoking causes a marked reduction of collagen production.
Diagnosis and Treatment
There is a variety of therapies that can be made without a prescription, including various creams and lotions. Also, topical retinozi may be prescribed by your doctor. ...