Yellow Fever or Hemorrhagic fever

General or Other | Preventative Medicine | Yellow Fever or Hemorrhagic fever (Disease)


Yellow fever is a serious infectious disease typically found in Central Africa and tropical America (Amazonia) and South America. Jungle yellow fever cases occur most frequently in urban Africa (particularly West Africa).

After an incubation of 3-6 days, the infection results in a high fever and sudden, with congestion of the face, which becomes bloated, and the abdominal and muscle pain. Disease may regress spontaneously after 3-4 days or worsen, bringing about a state of shock with hypothermia, jaundice and vomiting blood, anuria (cessation of production of urine), proteinuria greater (abnormally high levels of protein in urine). These signs translate a serious affect liver and kidney that can lead to coma and death.

Causes and Risk factors

Yellow fever is caused by Amaril virus. There are two modes of transmission: from animals (especially primates) or accidentally, from animals to humans (fever thicket) or by mosquitoes of the genera Haemagogus or Aedes (Aedes africanus, Aedes Simpson), personally (fever city), through its Aedes aegypti.

Jungle yellow fever is spread by mosquitoes and affects mainly jungle nonhuman hosts such as monkeys. People who spend time in the jungle habitat where mosquitoes and infected monkeys live can get jungle yellow fever and may be responsible for causing outbreaks of yellow fever urbane. People can get urban yellow fever, if they are bitten by a mosquito Aedes aegypti that previously has bitten an infected monkey or man has yellow fever. The risk of urban yellow fever outbreak occurring is higher in jungle areas are close to where infected mosquitoes and monkeys often attend.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis is based on serological tests (blood antibody research).

There is no treatment other than symptomatic: dehydration, kidney dialysis, transfusion. The vaccine is only effective protection, vaccination is mandatory in endemic areas and protect for a period of at least two years.

There are no effective drugs against yellow fever virus. Treatment aims at weakening symptoms. Fever is reduced by the administration of acetaminophen, not aspirin or ibuprofen, which favors the bleeding. Drinking plenty of fluids is important in order to avoid dehydration. ...

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