Pelvis | Oncology | Bladder cancer (Disease)
Bladder cancer is any of several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining, the urothelium, of the urinary bladder.
These tumors are classified based on the way they grow.
Papillary tumors have a wart-like appearance and are attached to a stalk. Nonpapillary (sessile) tumors are much less common. However, they are more invasive and have a worse outcome.
Symptoms of bladder cancer can include: abdominal pain; blood in the urine; bone pain or tenderness; fatigue; painful urination; urinary frequency; urinary urgency; urine incontinence; weight loss.
Causes and Risk factors
Tobacco smoking is the main known cause of urinary bladder cancer. The chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Occupations at risk are bus drivers, rubber workers, motor mechanics, leather (including shoe) workers, blacksmiths, machine setters and mechanics.
Women who had radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer. A long-term like chronic bladder infection or irritation may lead to a certain type of bladder cancer.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Tests that may be done include: abdominal CT scan, bladder biopsy, cystoscopy, urine cytology.
The treatment of bladder cancer depends on how deep the tumor invades into the bladder wall. Superficial tumors, those not entering the muscle layer, can be shaved off using an electrocautery device attached to a cystoscope. A combination of radiation and chemotherapy can also be used to treat invasive disease....