Blood in the urine (hematuria)

Pelvis | Urology | Blood in the urine (hematuria) (Disease)


Hematuria is a medicine condition characterized by the presence of red blood cells named erythrocytes in the urine. It can be idiopathic and benign, but also can be a sign of a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract represented by kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra).

Causes and Risk factors

Hematuria can vary from minor to lethal. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be either gross, visible, or microscopic, defined by more than three to five red blood cells per high power field when viewed under magnification.

Microscopic hematuria is usually caused by infection of the urine, arising either from the kidneys or bladder. Kidney and bladder stones can cause irritation and abrasion of the urinary tract, leading to microscopic or gross hematuria.

Other causes of hematuria are: trauma, tumor, kidney disease, prostate infection or inflammation. Medications that increase the risk of bleeding, such as aspirin, warfarin, or clopidogrel, may also lead to bloody urine. Lastly, cancer anywhere along the urinary tract can present with hematuria.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The evaluation for blood in urine consists of taking a history, performing a physical examination, evaluating the urine under a microscope, and obtaining a culture of the urine.

Treatments for hematuria are various and depend of the cause of the bleeding. Often no source is found for the presence of hematuria. ...