Skin | Dermatology | Acne (Disease)
Acne is a chronic skin disorder caused by inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the skin. The most common type is acne vulgaris, which almost always develops during puberty. However, acne can occur at any age. Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples or zits. This includes whiteheads, blackheads, and red, inflamed patches of skin, such as cysts.
Causes and Risk factors
Acne may be triggered by: hormonal changes related to puberty, menstrual periods, pregnancy, birth control pills, or stress; greasy or oily cosmetic and hair products; certain drugs such as steroids, testosterone, estrogen, and phenytoin; high levels of humidity and sweating.
Acne develops in areas of skin with a high concentration of sebaceous glands, mainly the face, chest, upper back, shoulders, and around the neck. Milia (whiteheads), comedones (blackheads), nodules (firm swellings beneath the skin), and cysts (larger, fluid-filled swellings) are the most commonly occurring spots. Some, particularly cysts, leave scars after they heal, which may cause emotional distress in some people.
Some factors that dont usually play a role in acne, but sometimes they do are: heredity, food, dirt - on the other hand, excessive washing can dry and irritate the skin, stress. In occasional patients, the following may be contributing factors: pressure from helmets, chin straps, collars, suspenders, drugs containing iodides, bromides, or oral or injected steroids, anticonvulsant medications and lithium, occupations that involves exposure to industrial products like cutting oils and cosmetics - some cosmetics and skin-care products are pore clogging.
Diagnosis and Treatment
There is no instant cure for acne, but washing the affected areas twice daily may help to keep it under control. Topical drug treatments, such as benzoyl peroxide or retinoic acid, unblock the pores and promote healing. If topical treatment has failed, oral drug treatment with antibiotic drugs, hormones, or isotretinoin may be given....