Carotid cavernous fistula (abnormal connection)
Head | Neurology | Carotid cavernous fistula (abnormal connection) (Disease)
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a hear condition described as an abnormality in communication between the arterial and venous systems inside the cavernous sinus in the skull. It is a type of arteriovenous fistula.
These lesions may be classified based on the following: etiology (traumatic or spontaneous), velocity of blood flow (high or low), and anatomy (direct or dural, or internal carotid or external carotid).
Symptoms may include pain, bulging eyes, deteriorating vision, a bruit meaning a humming sound within the skull and ringing in the ears. Patience may have a history of similar episodes in the past.
Causes and Risk factors
Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula occur because of traumatic or spontaneous rents in the walls of the intracavernous internal carotid artery or its branches, penetrating head trauma, surgical damage, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm etc. or in association with connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases and dural fistulas.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis is based on investigation such as: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computer Tomography angiogram (CT) and a cerebral DSA.
The treatment of a Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) depends on the severity of the clinical symptoms, its angiographic characteristics, and the risk it presents for intracranial hemorrhage. In most instances, endovascular treatment is preferred. All direct CCFs should receive treatment, because they carry a high probability of intracranial hemorrhage or neurologic deterioration....