Diabetes mellitus type 2 (high blood sugar)

General or Other | Endocrinology and Metabolism | Diabetes mellitus type 2 (high blood sugar) (Disease)


Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus, adult-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or just diabetes. Diabetes mellitus type 2 gives too much glucose in the circulation causing damage to almost every organ in their body. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is more often seen in adults and is more common in patients who are overweight. Patients generally have near normal levels of insulin but have insulin resistance. It is rare for the type 2 diabetes to progress to diabetic ketoacidosis.

The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequent urination, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include : increased urination, increased drinking of fluids, increased appetite, nausea, fatigue, blurry vision.

Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body processes and uses carbohydrates, fats and proteins. During digestion, food is broken down into its basic components. The liver processes these nutrients into one type of sugar—glucose. Glucose is the most basic fuel for the body. Glucose enters your bodys cells with the help of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Without insulin, glucose cannot pass through the cell wall.

Causes and Risk factors

Type 2 diabetes occurs when your bodys cells do not react efficiently to insulin. This condition is called insulin resistance.

In people with insulin resistance, the pancreas first makes extra insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar. Over time, the bodys insulin resistance gets worse. The pancreas cannot keep up with the demand for more and more insulin. As a result, blood glucose levels rise.

Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Diagnosis and Treatment

There is no cure for diabetes. Treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms. ...