Gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea viral)


Abdomen | Gastroenterology | Gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea viral) (Disease)


Description

Gastroenteritis means inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Similar gastrointestinal symptoms can also result from a variety of other conditions that are not contagious, such as alcohol intoxication or irritable bowel syndrome.

Gastroenteritis typically involves both diarrhea and vomiting, or less commonly, presents with only one or the other. Abdominal cramping may also be present.

Signs and symptoms usually begin 12–72 hours after contracting the infectious agent. If due to a viral agent, the condition usually resolves within one week.

Causes and Risk factors

Viral gastroenteritis is an infection caused by a variety of viruses that results in vomiting or diarrhea. It is often called the stomach flu, although it is not caused by the influenza viruses. Gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by a viral infection and is commonly referred to as viral gastroenteritis, the stomach flu, or the 24-hour or 48-hour “bug”. This type of infectious gastroenteritis is contagious.

A bacterial infection, such as Salmonella food poisoning, can cause bacterial gastroenteritis, which is also contagious. Some viral causes may also be associated with fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. If the stool is bloody, the cause is less likely to be viral and more likely to be bacterial. Some bacterial infections may be associated with severe abdominal pain and may persist for several weeks.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Treatment for most forms of viral gastroenteritis is largely supportive as antibiotics provide no benefit. General treatment includes clear liquid diet, hydration, and fever control. Bacterial gastroenteritis treatment varies based on the species of bacteria. Some may benefit from intravenous fluids and antibiotics. ...