Inflammatory bowel disease (ibd)


Abdomen | Gastroenterology | Inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) (Disease)


Description

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis

It is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process.

Causes and Risk factors

It is not yet know what causes inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IBD is called an idiopathic disease.

An unknown factor/agent (or a combination of factors) triggers the body’s immune system to produce an inflammatory reaction in the intestinal tract that continues without control. As a result of the inflammatory reaction, the intestinal wall is damaged leading to bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Genetic, infectious, immunologic, and psychological factors have all been implicated in influencing the development of IBD.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Tests to establish the diagnosis include: barium enema, colonoscopy, CT scan of the abdomen, endoscopy, MRI of the abdomen, sigmoidoscopy with enteroscopy, small bowel X-ray series, and/or upper GI series.

Therapy depends on the extent of the disease. The goal is to reduce the inflammation in the intestines and reduce the symptoms. Standard treatments include steroids, aminosalicylates, and immune modification medications like Infliximab. Surgery may be required as well. ...