Skin | Hematology | Jaundice (Disease)
Jaundice is not a disease, but rather a sign that can occur in many different diseases. Jaundice is the yellowish staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) that is caused by high levels in blood of a chemical bilirubin. The color of the skin and the whites of the eyes vary depending on the level of bilirubin. When the bilirubin level is mildly elevated, they are yellowish. When the bilirubin level is high, they tend to be brown.
Bilirubin comes from red blood cells. When red blood cells get old, they are destroyed by the body. Hemoglobin, the iron-containing chemical in the red blood cells that carries oxygen, is released from the destroyed red blood cells after the iron it contains is removed. The chemical that remains in the blood after the iron is removed becomes bilirubin.
Causes and Risk factors
Yellowing of the skin, scleroticii (white eyes) and mucous membranes due to accumulation in blood, bilirubin (pigment derived from hemoglobin). Jaundice corresponds jaundice in everyday language. There are two types of bilirubin: bilirubin called free or unconjugated, produced during the destruction of red blood cells, insoluble in water and urine netrecand turns in the liver by albumin binding in bilirubin called conjugate soluble in water and excreted in urine. For this reason there are two main types of jaundice, by type of bilirubin in question: the first is related to excessive destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) or a hereditary enzyme deficiency of liver cells (Gilberts syndrome), the second is manifest during liver disease and biliary tract (viral or toxic hepatitis, bacterial infection, cirrhosis, glabena fever, malignant tumor, infected stones).
Diagnosis and Treatment
The treatment of jaundice usually requires a diagnosis of the specific cause of the jaundice, and treatment is directed at the specific cause, for example, removal of a gallstone blocking the bile duct. ...