Mitral regurgitation

Chest | Cardiology | Mitral regurgitation (Disease)


Mitral regurgitation (MR) is defined as an abnormal reversal of blood flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium.

The most common etiologies of MR include mitral valve prolapse (MVP), rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, annular calcification, cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management of MR differ with the chronicity of the disease and the etiology.

Causes and Risk factors

It is caused by disruption in any part of the mitral valve apparatus, which comprises the mitral annulus, the leaflets (a large anterior [aortic] leaflet and a small posterior [mural] leaflet), the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles (anteromedial and posterolateral).

Mitral valve regurgitation can be caused by many things, including: mitral valve prolapse, damaged tissue cords, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, wear and tear on the valve, prior heart attack, untreated high blood pressure, congenital heart defects.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Treatment of mitral valve regurgitation depends on how severe your condition is, whether its getting worse, and signs and symptoms. For mild cases, treatment may not be necessary. Heart surgery may be needed to repair or replace the valve for more-severe cases. Left untreated, severe mitral valve regurgitation can cause heart failure or serious heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias). ...