Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (tb)

Chest | Pulmonology | Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (tb) (Disease)


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis (TB). M. tuberculosis has an unusual, waxy coating on its cell surface (primarily mycolic acid), which makes the cells impervious to Gram staining, so acid-fast detection techniques are used, instead. The physiology of M. tuberculosis is highly aerobic and requires high levels of oxygen. Primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, MTB infects the lungs.

Causes and Risk factors

Tuberculosis (TB), a multisystemic disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, is the most common cause of infectious disease–related mortality worldwide.

The prevalence of drug-resistant TB is also increasing worldwide. Co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been an important factor in the emergence and spread of resistance.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The most frequently used diagnostic methods for TB are the tuberculin skin test, acid-fast stain, and chest radiographs. New TB treatments are being developed, and new TB vaccines are under investigation. ...