Myxedema coma (severe low thyroid)


Neck | Endocrinology and Metabolism | Myxedema coma (severe low thyroid) (Disease)


Description

Hypothyroidism is a clinical syndrome in which the deficiency or absence of thyroid hormone slows bodily metabolic processes.

Symptoms can manifest in all organ systems and range in severity based on the degree of hormone deficiency. The disease typically progresses over months to years but can occur quickly following cessation of thyroid replacement medication or surgical removal of the thyroid gland.

Causes and Risk factors

The term myxedema refers to the thickened, nonpitting edematous changes to the soft tissues of patients in a markedly hypothyroid state. Myxedema coma, a rare, life-threatening condition, occurs late in the progression of hypothyroidism. The condition is seen typically in elderly women and is often precipitated by infection, medication, environmental exposure, or other metabolic-related stresses.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Because rapid confirmatory laboratory tests are often unavailable, the diagnosis may be made on clinical grounds with treatment started promptly.

Treatment of myxedema coma requires potentially toxic doses of thyroid hormone, and mortality rates exceeding 20% have been reported even with optimum therapy. ...