General or Other | - Others | Orbital mass (Disease)
The orbit in the broadest sense describes the cavity containing structures essential for ocular function and the bony architecture that encases them. Since the orbit is a relatively small anatomical area with little wasted space, space-occupying lesions that increase orbital volume may result in proptosis of the globe and may adversely affect visual and extraocular muscle function.
An orbital mass carries a relatively wide differential: tumours (lymphoma, metastasis, lacrimal gland or duct tumors, rhabdomyosarcosma or the orbit, retinoblastoma, orptic nerve meningioma, optic nerve glioma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, dermoid), orbital pseudotumor, orbital sarcoidosis, vascular lesions (capillary haemangioma-in infancy, cavernosus haemangioma, orbital venous varix, lympangioma) .
Symptoms of an orbital tumor may include protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis), pain, loss of vision, double vision, redness, swelling of the eyelids, or an obvious mass. Some tumors are visible and therefore easily identified, while others may not exhibit symptoms until they are large enough to displace the eyeball.
Causes and Risk factors
Most childhood orbital tumors are benign and are the result of developmental abnormalities. Common orbital tumors in children are dermoids (cysts of the lining of the bone) and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors). Malignant tumors are unusual in children, but any rapidly growing mass should be cause for concern. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor affecting children, and it usually occurs between the ages of 7 and 8. This particular tumor grows rapidly and can be life threatening if it grows into the brain or spreads into the lungs.
The most common orbital tumors in adults are also blood vessel tumors, including hemangioma, lumphangioma, and arteriovenous malformation. Tumors of the nerves, fat, and surrounding sinuses occur less often. Lymphomas are the most frequently occurring malignant orbital tumors in adults. Metastic tumors most frequently arise from the breast and prostate, while squamous and basal cell cancer can invade the orbit from surrounding skin and sinus cavities.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Treatment for orbital mass depends on the size and type of tumor, but may include: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery.