Ovarian torsion (twisting of the ovary)
General or Other | - Others | Ovarian torsion (twisting of the ovary) (Disease)
Ovarian torsion is the twisting of the ovary due to the influence of another condition or disease. This results in extreme lower abdominal pain.
Ovarian torsion occurs infrequently only in females. It can occur in women of all ages, but most women that experience this are younger. Approximately 70-75% of cases occur in women under 30 years old. About 20% of all reported cases are in pregnant women. It is the fifth most common gynecological emergency which can include surgical intervention.
Ovarian torsion usually arises in only one ovary at a time. They can occur in either normal or enlarged ovaries and fallopian tubes, and occasionally they develop in both.
The characteristic symptom of ovarian torsion is the sudden onset of extreme lower abdominal pain that radiates to the back, side and thigh. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation can accompany the pain. The patient may also experience tenderness in the lower abdominal area, a mild fever and tachycardia
Causes and Risk factors
There are a variety of conditions that can cause torsion of the ovary ranging from changes in normal ovaries to congenital and developmental abnormalities or even a disease that affects the tube or ovary. Normal ovaries that experience spasms or changes in the blood vessels in the mesosalpinx can become twisted. For example, if the veins in the mesosalpinx become congested, the ovaries will undergo torsion.
Developmental abnormalities of the fallopian tube such as extremely longer-than-normal tubes or a missing mesosalpinx will cause ovarian torsion. Diseases such as ovarian cysts or fibromas, tumor of the ovary or tubes, and trauma to either the ovaries or the tubes will also cause ovarian torsion.
Diagnosis and Treatment.
The treatment for ovarian torsion is emergent and includes laparoscopic surgery to relieve the ovarian torsion, or to remove an ovary that is damaged by the lack of blood supply.