Pallister-Killian syndrome


General or Other | - Others | Pallister-Killian syndrome (Disease)


Description

Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body. This condition is characterized by extremely weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy and early childhood, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, sparse hair, areas of unusual skin coloring (pigmentation), and other birth defects.

Patients with Pallister-Killian Mosaic Syndrome typically have low muscle tone at birth, sparse scalp hair at birth, a high forehead, a coarse face, an abnormally wide space between the eyes, a broad nasal bridge, a highly arched palate, a fold of the skin over the inner corner of the eyes, and large ears with lobes that are thick and protrude outward.

Other features frequently found in patients with this disorder may include: streaks of skin in which there is no color (hypopigmentation), extra nipples, seizures at birth, droopy upper eyelids, crossed eyes (strabismus), joints that will not move (contractures), and delays in perceiving, recognizing, judging, sensing, reasoning or imagining (cognitive delays).

Congenital heart defects, hernias of the diaphragm, a narrowing of the external auditory canal (stenosis) and an abnormal opening in the anus have also been associated with Pallister-Killian Mosaic Syndrome.

Causes and Risk factors

Pallister-Killian Mosaic Syndrome is caused by tetrasomy for chromosome 12p. Patients with Pallister-Killian Mosaic Syndrome have four copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 instead of the normal two. All recorded cases of this disorder have been sporadic.

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