Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

General or Other | - Others | Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (Disease)


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when bacteria move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis. Most cases of PID are due to the bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea. These are sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Symptoms in PID range from subclinical (asymptomatic) to severe. If there are symptoms, then fever, cervical motion tenderness, lower abdominal pain, new or different discharge, painful intercourse, or irregular menstrual bleeding may be noted. It is important to note that even asymptomatic PID can and does cause serious harm.

Causes and Risk factors

The most common way a woman develops PID is by having unprotected sex with someone who has a sexually transmitted infection. Bacteria can infect the Fallopian tubes and cause inflammation (salpingitis). When this happens, normal tissue can become scarred and block the normal passage of an egg, causing infertility. But if Fallopian tubes are partially blocked, an egg may implant outside the uterus and cause a dangerous condition called an ectopic pregnancy.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Laparoscopic identification is helpful in diagnosing tubal disease, 65–90% positive predictive value in patients with presumed PID. Regular Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) testing is important for prevention.

Treatment is usually started empirically because of the serious complications that may result from delayed treatment. ...