Pneumonia, Pneumonia vaccination


Chest | Pulmonology | Pneumonia, Pneumonia vaccination (Disease)


Description

Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by different types of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Symptoms of pneumonia include cough with sputum production, fever, and sharp chest pain on inspiration.

Causes and Risk factors

Pneumonia is an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, one-third of all people who developed pneumonia subsequently died from the infection.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Pneumococcal vaccination is a method of preventing a specific type of lung infection (pneumonia) that is caused by Pneumococcus bacterium.

There are more than 80 different types of pneumococcus bacteria-23 of these are covered in the current vaccination. The vaccine is injected into the body to stimulate the normal immune system to produce antibodies that are directed against pneumococcus bacteria. This immune response is less robust than the response provoked by conjugated vaccines, which has several consequences.

The vaccine is ineffective in children less than two years old, presumably due to their less mature immune systems. Non-responders are also common amongst older adults. Immunization is not life-long, so individuals must be re-vaccinated every 5-6 years.

The pneumococcal vaccine is given as one dose for most people. The vaccine is injected as a liquid solution of 0. 5 mL into the muscle (intramuscular or IM), typically deltoid muscle, or under the skin (subcutaneous or SC). The area injected is typically sterilized by rubbing alcohol onto the skin prior to the injection.

Persons vaccinated prior to age 65 should be vaccinated at age 65 if five or more years have passed since the first dose. For people with lack of spleen function (such as in sickle cell disease or after spleen removal), transplant patients, patients with chronic kidney disease, immunosuppressed or immunodeficient persons, and others at highest risk of fatal infection, a second dose should be given at least five years after first dose. ...