Pelvis | Gynecology | Pregnancy (Disease)


Pregnancy is the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus, in a womans uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets.

Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception; in women who have a menstrual cycle length of four weeks, this is approximately 40 weeks from the start of the last normal menstrual period (LNMP). Human pregnancy is the most studied of all mammalian pregnancies.

The term embryo is used to describe the developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception, and subsequently the term fetus is used henceforth until birth. 40% of pregnancies in the United States and United Kingdom are unplanned.

Symptoms of pregnancy include breast tenderness, nausea, vomiting, or both, missing a period or having an abnormal period, weight gain, breast enlargement, nipples darkening, or breast discharge, urinatingmore frequently than usual, fetal movement (may be perceived after 20 weeks for new mothers).

Causes and Risk factors

Pregnancy occurs when an egg is fertilized by a sperm, grows inside a womans uterus (womb), and develops into a baby. In humans, this process takes about 264 days, but the obstetrician will date from the last menstrual period or 280 days (40 weeks).

Pregnancy occurs with the fertilization of a womans egg by a mans sperm. Fertility drugs may improve a womans odds of achieving pregnancy.


Normal pregnancy is not an illness and needs no treatment other than standard prenatal care. After the initial visit, during the first six months of pregnancy, you should see your doctor about once per month. Visits should be scheduled every two weeks during the seventh and eight month and weekly during the ninth month. If a womans pregnancy is difficult or complicated, her treatment can vary from simple bedrest to amniocentesis, which is removal, for testing, of a small amount of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus. Fetal monitoring with a machine, an ultrasound physical assessment, or a stay in the hospital for testing or medication may also be part of the treatment.

Flu shots are recommended for women who are pregnant. ...

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