Septic arthritis (joint infection)
General or Other | Rheumatology | Septic arthritis (joint infection) (Disease)
Septic or infectious arthritis is known as direct invasion of joint space of various microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, mycobacteria and fungi. Reactive arthritis, a sterile inflammatory process may be a consequence of a localized infectious process in the body away.
Causes and Risk factors
Although any infectious agent may cause arthritis , bacterial pathogens are the most significant due to rapid destructive nature. Because use of prosthetic joint infection associated with these devices is the danger encountered and septic arthritis. The two main classes of suppurative septic arthritis / gonorrhea are bacterial which are not gonoccocs.
Although Neisseria gonorrhea remains the most common disease - 75% of cases among sexually active young people, Staphylococcus aureus is due vast majority of acute bacterial arthritis in adults and children over 2 years. This pathogen is the cause of arthritis affected 80% of rheumatoid arthritis. Species such as Streptococcus viridans streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and group B streptococci has over 20% of cases. Aerobic gram-negative cocci are involved in 20-25% of cases.
Most infections occur in elderly or very young, immunosuppressed, intravenous drug abusers. Stern or clavicle joint infection with Pseudomonas aeroginosa or Serratia species occurs exclusively in drug addicts. People with leukemia are prone to infection with Aeromonas. Polymicrobial infections, 10% of cases and infection with anaerobic organisms are a consequence of abdominal trauma or infection. Those who survived the acute infection presents with severe joint destruction fibrous or bony ankylosis. Fibrous ankylosis determine TB infection.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Antibiotic therapy reduced disease morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate is below 10%. Approximately 60% of patients recover completely.
Prompt treatment limits long-term destruction. Patients who are asymptomatic more than 7 days before the diagnosis tend to experience severe joint damage. Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacilli tend to be more destructive. Children with septic arthritis of the hip presents long-term disability. The prognosis is better for older children. Long-term complications may occur growth disorders, fibrous or bony ankylosis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head. ...