Vomiting of Blood

Mouth | Gastroenterology | Vomiting of Blood (Symptom)


Gastrointestinal bleeding is an extravasation of blood in the digestive tract, from esophagus to anus being a surgical emergency. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is bleeding in the digestive segment located above the Treitz angle. Hematemesis is vomiting blood that characterizes upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The colour of blood expelled by vomiting it depends on the length of contact with blood.

Gastrointestinal bleeding is detected even if the positive tests indicate occult bleeding, it may indicate a potentially serious condition that should be investigated further.


The causes can be: digestive - gastropaty erosive or hemorrhagic duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, esophageal varices or portal hypertensive gastropaty and arteriovenous malformations. Other digestive diseases are represented by cirrhosis, diseases of the spleen vein thrombosis, Budd – Chiari syndrome, chronic pancreatitis and acute hemorrhagic celiac diseases. Extra digestive diseases - such as the unknown thrombocytopenic hematological purpura,hemophilia, Henoch, Hodgkin disease, leukemia, vascular diseases among which hypertension, aorto-enteric fistula, mesenteric or hepatic artery aneurysm, systemic diseases such as arthritis nodosa, sarcoidosis, multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, lupus, kidney disease accompanied by uremia.

Clinical entity presented explains 90% of all cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the intestinal specific source can be found. The disease with gastric erosion or hemorrhagic erosion are commonly associated with the ingestion of NSAIDs, especially aspirin.

Peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori are the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hematemesis or melena protrudes.

Bleeding from varices or portal hypertensive disease which is found in liver cirrhosis is typically severe and in large amounts. Bleeding from esophageal or gastric throat due to portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis. Although upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with cirrhosis suggests a venous source, one quarter of those patients will bleed from another lesion such as an erosive gastric disease, gastritis, peptic ulcer. This is essential to determine the cause of bleeding as soon to be established as soon as treatment.